Station pump straw raw water from reservoirs, lakes, rivers, streams, wells, or underground aquifers water. Water travels via pipeline from the pumping station to the treatment facility
The water treatment process is a series of steps and techniques used to remove impurities and contaminants from water to make it safe for human consumption or for various industrial purposes. The specific processes involved may vary depending on the source and quality of the water, as well as the intended use. However, the following is a general overview of the typical water treatment process:
- Coagulation/Flocculation: Chemicals such as alum or ferric chloride are added to the water to destabilize and clump together suspended particles and colloids, forming larger particles called floc.
- Sedimentation: The water is allowed to sit in large basins or tanks, allowing the heavier floc particles to settle to the bottom due to gravity. This process is called sedimentation or clarification.
- Filtration: The clarified water is passed through various filters to remove smaller suspended particles that may still be present. Common types of filters include sand filters, activated carbon filters, and multimedia filters.
- Disinfection: To eliminate harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, disinfection is carried out. The most common method is the addition of disinfectants like chlorine, chloramine, or ozone. These disinfectants help kill or inactivate the microorganisms present in the water.
- pH Adjustment: The pH level of the water may be adjusted using chemicals such as lime or soda ash to ensure it falls within the desired range. This helps to control corrosion and minimize scaling in distribution systems.
- Fluoridation: In some cases, fluoride is added to the treated water to prevent tooth decay and promote dental health.
- Additional Treatment (if required): Depending on the specific characteristics of the water, additional treatment processes may be employed. These could include processes such as advanced filtration techniques (e.g., membrane filtration), activated carbon adsorption, or specific chemical treatments to address particular contaminants.
- Storage and Distribution: After the water has been treated, it is stored in reservoirs before being distributed through a network of pipes to consumers. The distribution system is designed to maintain the water’s quality and prevent contamination.
It’s important to note that the water treatment process can vary depending on the location and the complexity of the water source and contaminants present. Advanced treatment technologies may be employed in situations where the water source is heavily polluted or requires specific treatment requirements.